These initiatives seek to improve environmental conditions by fostering the use of technologies and practices that reduce the negative externalities produced by vehicles. The challenge of this type of strategy mainly relates to enforcement. In areas where these strategies are implemented, information regarding the process and level of enforcement is very limited.
Technology and Programs
Emission standards have helped foster the use of vehicles that produce less environmental impacts. Although they improve environmental conditions, emission standards have resulted in the need for changes in vehicle fleets, thereby increasing investment, maintenance, and operating costs. Evidence exists that actual increases in operational costs are often higher than those noted in these analyses (ICF International et al. 2011). Various programs exist to accelerate the use of cleaner vehicles before the introduction of emission standards, or seek to voluntarily increase the uptake of these vehicles. The Hunts Point Clean Trucks Program is a voluntary clean truck program that provides rebate incentives to truck owners based in the South Bronx communities of Hunts Point and Port Morris, New York (New York City Department of Transportation 2012a). Truck owners can take advantage of available funding to assist them in replacing an older truck with a new EPA emission-compliant diesel truck or a new alternative-fuel vehicle. Funding is also available for the installation of exhaust retrofit technologies or vehicle scrap. Similar schemes include the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach Clean Trucks programs (Port of Los Angeles 2007), which have worked closely with the Coalition for Responsible Transportation to develop an initiative for truck replacement with sponsorship of the private sector (CRT and EDF 2010). The PANYNJ, on its side, has implemented the Truck Replacement Program.
These programs and regulations specifically target noise pollution with regulations and low-noise delivery initiatives. In the United States, EPA provides basic guidelines, though noise policy is left to local agencies (e.g., New York City’s Local Law 113 [The City of New York 2005]). Other noise programs intend to facilitate OHD by fostering adoption of low-noise technologies and practices (Holguín Veras et al. 2013a). In the Netherlands, for exmple, the PIEK Program subsidizes the acquisition of technologies that meet the new Dutch noise standards (Goevaers 2011).