Initiative 16: Emission Standards

Emission Standards
Description: Enforcement of emission standards for freight vehicles, which may involve the use of electric or low-emission vehicles for urban deliveries. A number of vehicle renewal programs support this type of initiative.
Targeted mode: All traffic Geographic scope: Nation
Type of initiative: Vehicle-related strategies Primary objective: Environmental sustainability
Expected costs and level of effort to implement: This initiative involves minor costs to update policies and standards on emissions, but the public-sector cost of enforcement could be high. High private-sector capital investments in fleet renewal could be involved. The implementation of emission standards is expected to take moderate time.
Advantages:

  • Environmental sustainability
  • Enhance livability
  • Enhance efficiency
  • Reduce operational costs
  • Low probability for unintended consequences
Disadvantages:

  • Require high capital investments for the private sector
  • May require coordination, control and enforcement among municipalities
  • Depend on other public entities’ standards
  • May require investments in additional infrastructure to support new technologies (e.g., charging stations, alternative-fuel supply)
  • Require private-sector cooperation
Examples:

  • U.S. EPA Emission StandardsInitiative-14 (1) image
  • California Air Resources Board’s (ARB) Transport Refrigeration Unit Airborne Toxic Control Measure (California Environmental Protection Agency 2012)
  • Euro VI standards (European Commission 2012)

Renewal Programs:

  • U.S. EPA SmartWay program
  • Plug In America (Plug In America 2013)
  • The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department Program and Pilot Green Transport Fund (Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department 2011)
  • PIEK Program, the Netherlands (Goevaers 2011)
Related alternatives:  1. Low Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations; 2. Engine-Related Restrictions; 3. Low Emission Zones; 4. Operational Incentives for Electric/Low Emission Vehicles; 5. Taxation
References: City Ports 2005; BESTUFS 2007; TURBLOG 2009; C-LIEGE 2010; Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department 2011; ICF International et al. 2011; California Environmental Protection Agency 2012; Environmental Protection Agency 2012; European Commission 2012; Plug In America 2013; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2013b

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